(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1. O. O. BARTON & J. THOMSON OOMBINED PISTON AND DIAPHRAGM METER.
No. 313,158. Patented Mar. s,- 1885.
' jgfj Q fiventorsg m M CE I 3 SheetsSheet 2 O. O. BARTON & J. THOMSON, COMBINED PISTON AND DIAPHRAGM METER. No. 313,158.
PateEgggi Mar. 3, 1885.
N. Pcrcns. Phololjllmgrnplwr. wmm m. n.0,
No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet-3.
G. 0. BARTON 8v J. THOMSON COMBINED PISTON AND DIAPHRAGM, METER. No. 313,158. Patented Mar. 3, 1885.
C I ventors:
Unrrnn firarns ATENT Orrreat.
CHARLES C. BARTON, OF NEYV YORK, AND JOHN THOMSON, OF BROOKLYN, NY.
COMBENED PISTON AND DIAPHRAGM METER PIUATEON forming part of Letters Patent No. 313,158, dated It'iarch 3, 1885.
Application filed April 26, 1884. (No model.)
To aZZ whom, it may concern.-
Be it known that we, CHARLES C. BARTON and JOHN THOMSON, citizens of the United States, residing, respectively, in the city,
county, and State of New York,a11d Brooklyn, county of Kings and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Fluid-Meters, of which the following is a specification.
Our invention relates to fluid-meters of that class in which the displacement is obtained by the combination of a piston and diaphragm and a y'alve system.
The chief objects of this invention are, first, i5 to improvethe operation and mechanical construction of fluid-measuring instruments, and,
second, to reduce the cost of their manufactn re.
To this end our invention refers particularly to the following features: first, the adaptation of the valve-actuating apparatus, the valve, piston-rod, and register-actuating apparatus to a single separate form or base, which, when entirely completed and assembled, is placed and secured within the cylinder much as a watch or clock movement is placed within its ease; second, in an improved arrangement of the valveactuating' apparatus; third, in an improved construction of the valve and 3a the valve-spindle; fourth, in an improved arrangement for transmitting the sum of the strokes of the piston tothe register; fifth, in an improved register-connection; sixth, in an improved form of diaphragm and manner of securing the same to the cylinder and piston, and method of assembling the component parts of the same; seventh, in an improved form and construction of the piston.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is an upright cen- 0 tral crosssection of our improved meter, exposing the valve-casing and valve-actuating apparatus in front elevation. Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the valve-casing and its appurtenances. Fig. 8 is an upright end elevation of the valve casing as viewed from the righthand side of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a transverse section through the valve-casing on the line C of Fig. 2. Figs. 5 and 6 are detached views of the valve. Fig. 7 is a detached side elevation of the diaphragm and clamping-rings. Figs. 8 and 9 are detached views of the piston and clamping-ring. view of the carriage. V
In the construction of instruments of this class heretofore the practice has uniformly 5 5 been, so far as possible, to form the valve-casing and every portion necessary to operate as a part of the main cylinder or cylinders. The objections We have found, in so far as this pre cedent has been followed, are that it is practically impossible to combine the highest efficiency, the bestdisposition of parts within the smallest possible space, with the least quantity of material, and the lowest cost to construct the component parts and to assemble the same. The reasons for the enumerated objections are, that the work to be done is generally within a cylinder inconvenient and difficult of access, or on a cumbrous bonnet, chest, or septum, likewise inconvenient to han- 7o dle. WVe obviate these difiiculties in the following manner:
' The machine-work to be done on the lower cylinder, 1, and the upper cylinder, 2, of the figure, consists of facing or]? the flanges, drill- 7 5 ing the bolt-holesS, bearing for stuffing-box 4. and bindingscrews 5, and boring thetaper 6. Aside from fitting the ingress and egress pipes, this is the sum of the machine-work 011 the cylinders.
To the taper of the crown of the cylinder is fitted what will be herein termed the valve' case 7, in which is formed a complete system of sluices or water-ways connecting with corresponding waterways-in the'cylinder, and to 85 which every working part of the meter is attached or connected. All of the operations upon thevalvecasing, however, are performed before it is secured within the cylinder, its attachment thereto being effected as to posi- 0 tion by the registershai't 8, and as to retention by the screws 5. It will be observed that these screws also serve to force the two tapering bearing-surfaces (3 of the valve-casing and cylinder together with great intimacy, thus making a 5 fluid-tight joint between them. The position Fig. 10 is a side and plan of the register-shaft bearing is such that it so locates the valvecasing that the egress-sluice 9, Fig. 2, meets a corresponding cored waterway, and the ingresssluice 10 and. intermedi- 10o ate sluice, 11, also meet corresponding waterways in the opposite side of the cylinder. The
intermediate water-way, 12, (dotted lines, Fig. springs and relieves the bell-crank of the fric- 1,)of the upper cylinder follows down and meets a corresponding water-way, 13, in the lower cylinder, thus completing the circuit. The diaphragm 14 is secured between the flanges of the cylinders and to the piston 15, (in a manner to be hereinafter described,) thus forming two compartments within the cylinder-an upper, 16, and a lower, 17. The valve is of the compound puppet type, and is balanced as to hydrostatic and working pressure, by workingpressure being meant that due to the friction developed in operating the meter.
The passage of the fluid during the time in which the valve is in the position shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 is as follows: first, from the ingress-sluice to and through the inductionport 18, (induction-port 19 and eduction-port 20 being closed by the valves 21 22,) to the intermediate sluice, 11, and water-way 12, down to lower compartment, 17, thus forcing piston and diaphragm up, as see dotted outline, and expelling the fluid from upper compartment, 16, which had previously been filled, through the port 19, when the valve was in the position shown in Fig. 4, into and through .eduction-port 23, to'the egresssluice 24, and
nate position. (Indicated by center lines,.Fig.
. 3.) 1n the bell-crank the effect will be to force until the heels of said springs-that is,
over the spring-carriage 29, against the tension of the V toggle-springs 30, whose thrust is exerted against the thrust-block 31, to the valves, thus holding the valves to their seats their outer bearings in the spring-carriage .will have been carried beyond their deadthe valve as now assumed is shown in Fig. 4.,
'when the ingress-current will flow through .the now openinduction-port 19 directly into the upper chamber, 16, and the fluid from the lower chamberwill be forced back through the intermediate waterway of the cylinder to the intermediate sluice of the valve-chamber, through the eduction-port 20 to the egresssluice of the valve-casing, and thence out.
The use of the bell-crank permits, first, a horizontal position to the valve, and, second,
.a direct connection with the piston-rod and motor-springs actuating the valve.
The spring-carriage is attached to the bellcrank by small pivots, as 33, so that said carriage takes the entire direct thrust of the tion-of their thrust.-
It will be undestood that the angle subtended by the bell-crank in its alternate positions is not transmitted to the carriage and springs, as the pivoted connection permits the carriage to travel back and forth in a vertical line only. In this direct connection of the spring-carriage to the bell-crank there is a slight error of movement, in that the are described by the bell-crank is imparted to the carriage and tends to slightly cramp the springs by alternately raising and lowering their heels in their horizontal plane.
To eliminate the objection noted the springs are formed as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, their center or V portions, 30, being considerably narrower than their bearing-surfaces. The effect of this is to make the springs very elastic horizontally, as well as when compressed upon themselves. Thus their heels may be lifted and lowered within the limits required without interfering with their proper action, besides which long and durable bearing-surfaces are provided for the knife-edge bearings to act upon.
WVhile the carriage might readily be made solid, it is preferably built up by the yokes 33 and bearing-blocks 34, as in this way the blocks can be formed in long pieces, with the V -bearings 35 accurately milled, and then cut to required length, while the yokes are stamped from sheet metal. The yokes, as will be seen, also prevent the springs from shifting up or down in their bearings. plates 36 are exact duplicates each of the other, and are secured to the valvecasing by the screws 38. They form the outer valveseats, and also the bearings in which the valve-spindle 37 operates. In forming the seats for said face-plates, and also the valve-seats 39 40 of induction and eduction ports, as see Fig: 4, thecasing is cast with the annular ribs 00 a; and chambers, and the method of finishing is as follows: A milling-tool of the exact shape required boxes the eduction and induction ports 18 20, and at the same time forms a seat for the valve and the face-plate 41 on one side of the valve-casing. The operation is repeated on the opposite side, the bore being continued until the opposing surfaces are brought to any predetermined distance apart. Thus the face-plates and bearings for the valve are brought exactly central with the ports, and whatever departure there may be from exact truth in the relative vertical planes of the valve-seats and face-plates as, say, from the right angle subtended by the longitudinal center of the valve-stem to the bearing of the bell-crank-it will not materially interfere with the free and proper action of the different parts, besides which the operations are few and simple. 1
To reduce the fitting and cost of the valves to a minimum, and to adapt the meter for correct operation in the most severe serviceas the measurement of water charged with grit The face- IIO and impurities-we form a fiexile built-up valve in the following manner, as see Figs. 4 and 5: 7
0n the sleeve 42 two hubs, 43, are formed the required distance apart. A port-ion of the ends of said sleeve are threaded to receive the binding-nuts 44, and the sleeve itself is finished to a length as much less than the distance between the inner surfaces of the hubs 45 of the faceplates as the full distance of the stroke of the valve. The valve-spindle is formed of regular gage wire forced tightly through the sleeve. Each movement of the valve-spindle will thus cause an alternate end of the sleeve to impinge upon one or other of the inner surfaces of the hubs 45 of the faceplates. Each portion of the valve is then made up of three plain disks, the first, 46, being of leather, vulcanized rubber, or any suitable analogous material, the second interposed disk, 47, being of thin spring metal, and the third, 48, a duplicate of the first. All are then clamped on the sleeve against the hub by the nut, as shown. Phe function of the stops formed by the ends of the sleeve is now apparcntnamely, to take the full force of the valve-motor springs and just permit the valve to make proper contact on its seats.
In the event, however, of any error in they construction of the parts, or of a foreign obstruction being caught between the valve and its seats, as illustrated in Fig. 6, the full force of the motor-springs will be exerted upon the valve to bring it to a seat until finally arrested in its movement by the stop; hence, in consequence of the greater power of the valve motor springs and the fiexile and elastic nature of the valve, an approximately accurate contact is effected upon the valve-seat under conditions that would otherwise render the instrument very inaccurate in its measurement or totally inoperative.
To effect the registration of the strokes of meters, and thereby measure the volume of liquid displaced, the usual practice heretofore has been to make direct and continuous connection, whereby each stroke or unit of displacement is transmitted to the register. The objection to this is that inasmuch as in the smaller sizes of instruments it requires a nu mber of movements to displace a cubic foot, (the unit of measurement in the United States,) and that as the register is connected by a shaft passing through a packed bearing, the friction is considerable, and there is liability'of leakage through the said packed bearing in consequence of the frequent movements of the shaft. WVe obviate these objections by transmitting to the register by means of the reg ister-shaft the result or sum tot-a1 only of the movements required to make up a cubic foot, or any arbitrary volume, upon the completion of the movements required to make the sum of the displacement desired to be indicated. To this end our arrangement is as follOWS: t
On a fixed bearing, 49, of the valve-casing is mounted the register-arm 50, carrying a pawl, 51, and a ratchet-wheel, 52, having one or more projecting pins, 53, said pins being caused to pass in proper pitch-line to intermesh with the pin-wheel 54. The said pinwheel is fast to the register-shaft 8, mounted in another fixed bearing, 55, of the valve-casing; hence it is apparent that by a proper relation of the number of teeth in the ratchet wheel to the piston-strokes required to measure any arbitrary unit of volume a single pin, or any one of a number of pins 53, will be caused to engage atooth of the pin-wheel only at the termination of a series of piston-strokes, and that the pin-wheel will be thus rotated a space equal to the pitch of one of its teeth,
which movement, being transmitted to the register, should indicate a full unit of displacement. In the present instance the adaptation is made with special reference to differential registers as shown and described in patents of the United States, Nos. 274,674 and 285,322, dated, respectively, March 27 and September 18, 1883, allowed to one of the present applicants. In this register each full unit of the dial corresponds to a single tooth of the dial-carrying wheel. We therefore simply attach a pinion, as 56, to the upper and outer portion of the register-shaft, which has a number of leaves corresponding to the number of teeth in the pin-wheel 54. Thus each movement of the pin-wheel equal to the pitch of its teeth or pins will rotate the pinion through a space equal to the pitch of its leaves, and will thus record a complete unit and the register. Supposing, therefore, that the number of piston-strokes to a cubic foot of fluid is sixteen, the number of teeth in the pin-wheel ten, and a corresponding number of leaves in the pinion, it would therefore require one hundred and sixty piston movements (16 X 102160) to turn the registershaft one complete revolution.
To facilitate the attachment of the-pinion to the register-shaft, we slot the end of said shaft, as at 57, to a proper depth, and insert a pin, 58, transversely through the pinion, and thereby positively drive the pinion and keep it in proper position on the shaft to engage the wheels of the register.
In the diaphragm 14, Fig. 7, we have found the best results by first forming it as a frus tum of a cone, the two determining points in its development being the diameter of the flanges or rings of the cylinders, which gives the greater diameter, and the diameter of the piston, which gives the lesser diameter. The cone is then projected sufficiently beyond these points to clamp the material to the cylinder and to the piston. Then, as an inner and outer flange is not thus formed on the material of the diaphragm, it must necessarily be crimped in at the apex and stretched out at the base, the advantage of which is that the fieXure of the material at the clampingpoints for each stroke is one-half of what it would be were. flanges forn1edthat is, the flexure at the IIO point 59 for each stroke becomes the means of the two angles subtended by the full lines and the dotted outline 60 of the diaphragm. This formationalso requires less material and is easier to construct.
v The usual man ner of secn ring the diaphragm to the cylinder is simply to clamp it between the flanges. We have found this objectionable, in that .the diaphragm is subjected to great pressure by-the flange-bolts tending to crush, cut, and squeeze out the diaphragm, besides bringing it in contact with corrosive metal. We instead thereof attach the base of the diaphragm to a pairof non-corrosive metal rings, 61 62, the ring 62 fitting snugly within the flange 68 of the ring 61. The diaphragm is then pinched between these rings, and the two rings, as one, are placed in a groove or recess, 64, formed in the flange of the upper cylinder, said groove being of such depth that the rings and diaphragm are clamped sutficiently tight to just insure the diaphragm against withdrawal and to form a water-tight joint. The inner edges, 65, of the rings are slightly rounded, and the rings project within 1 the cylinder; hence the diaphragm rolls withton.
in the fluid, completely free from anydisturbing or. corrosive influence. In somewhatlike manner we secure the apex of the diaphragm to the piston. In this instance, however, it becomes desirable to make the piston 15 of the least possible weight and the greatest stiffness in its horizontal plane to resist buckling or .diaphragmatic action[ To this end the piston (see Figs. 7, 8, and'9) is formed of light sheet metal, with a rounded outer flange, 66, a raised annulus, 67, within the flange, and between the center bearing for the piston-rod and said annulus 67 are stamped a number of ribs, all of which are tangent to a common circle concentric with that of the annulus 67. It will thus be seen that in whatever direction the strain may be applied, as at the lines 68 69, the said tangents will present a cross-sectional resistance to the strain or strains, with obvious results. The ribs may be curved instead of straight. The clamping-ring 70, Fig. 9, is formed with a rounded flange, like the piston, and an inner raised annulus, 71, the latter, however, being turned in an opposite direct-ion to that of the annulus 67 in the pis- The reason for this is that the piston and the clamping ring he one within the other, and are thereby accurately centered to each other, when it simply remains to secure the two together upon the diaphragm by rivets or screws and nuts, as shown, to complete the work.
The mode of setting up or assembling outer clamping-rings and piston is as follows: In Fig. 7 assume the piston in dotted outline to be fixed to ajig or form of the exact shape of the inner surfacevof the diaphragm. Then place the diaphragm upon the form. Next place the outer ring over the diaphragm, the said ring being also secured in a separate form of the exact shape of the outer surface of the diaphragm. The piston, diaphragm, and outer ring are then virtually locked together as one part. It simply remains to drive the inner ring, 62, snugly home to its position within the flange of the outer ring, thereby stretching the diaphragm and securing it at its base. Then secure the clamping-ring 71 to the piston, as set forth, when the work is completed and the forms may be withdrawn. This mode also insures uniformity of volume in manufacturing without after adjustment.
It will be observed that, in facing off the flange ofthe upper cylinder, a downwardlyprojecting collar is formed at its outer circumference, and that the flange of the lower cylinder is turned to fit this collar. The object of this construction is twofo1dfirst, to 1 center the two cylinders one upon the other, and, second, to prevent the packing from being blown out from between the two surfaces of the flanges. Constructed in this manner, the packing may be of any fibrous or plastic material suitable, and which obviously will be insured against ejection outwardly without being pinched excessively by the flange-bolts.- Of course the same results would be obtained by forming the collar on the lower cylinder.
Although we have illustrated the outer meter-casing as consisting of two connected cylinders, the same may be of any suitable construction, and the valve-casing supporting all the operating parts, whatever maybe their character, may be secured detachably within the outer casing in any suitable manner.
It will be obvious that the valves and casing may be differently constructed without departing from the principle of our invention relating to the support of all the working parts by the detachable valve-casing, and that dif- ICO ferent arrangements of channels may bemade .gress and egress openings for the passage of the fluid, of a detachable valve-casing having sluices open at their ends, and adapted to fit into said compartment and connect with said ingress and egress openings directly, the opcrating apparatus of the meter being secured to and detachable with said casing, substantially'as described.
2. The combination, with the upper compartment or casing of a fluid-meter having side ingress and egress openings for the passage of the fluid, of a detachable valve-casing having sluices open at their ends and a valve or valves operating therein, said "casing having secured or connected therewith the operating parts of the meter, and adapted to fit rior and exterior ports and valves adapted to holding the casing upon said bearing, substaninto said compartment and connected with the side channels, as and for the purpose set forth. 3. A detachable valve-easing having intebe placed in one of the cylinders or compartments of a fluid-meter, said valve-casing having secured or connected with it the operating parts of the meter, and being provided with a system of sluices open at the opposite ends of the casing, arranged to connect directly with a corresponding system of water-ways, substantially as described.
4:. A detachable valve-casing, upon which is secured or connected the operating mechanism of the meter, adapted to a tapered bearing within the cylinder, and clamping devices tiallyas set forth.
5. The combination, with the outer casing of a fluid-meter, havingchannels and ports and a diaphragm, of a detachable valve-casing provided with channels and ports, and an interior valve constructed to direct the fluid from the inlet alternately to opposite sides of the diaphragm and from opposite sides of the diaphragm alternately to the outlet, substantially as described.
6. The combination, with the detachable valve-casing, of the valve, the face-plates forming bearings for said valve, the spring-carriage and springs mounted thereon, the bellcrank, the piston-rod, and means for operating the same, substantially as specified.
'7. The combination, with the detachable valve-casing, of the register-shaft, the ratchet, a system of gearing connecting the said shaft and ratchet, the register-arm carrying a pawl, the piston-rod, and means for Operating the same, all of said elements being mounted upon the said valve-casing within the cylinder, sub stantially as specified.
8. The combination, in operative position and connection, of the bell-crank, the springcarriage, and toggle-acting V-springs, said carriage and bell-crank directly and pivotally connected, for the purpose set forth.
9. The combination, with the valve, the thrust-block and carriage, and means for operating the latter, of the toggle-acting double spring, formed in the manner and for the purpose herein shown and described.
10. In a fluid-meter, the built-up springcarriage consisting of a pair of bearing-blocks united by a pair of yokes, substantially as specified and shown.
11. In a fluid-meter, the combination, with the stops and spring-motor apparatus, of a built-up puppet-valve constructedof disks of pliant packing material and an interposed flexile disk of spring metal, whereby the said valve is relieved from excessive impact upon the valve-seat.
12. In a fluid-meter, the combination, with a spring'motor apparatus, of a built-up valvespindle consisting of a sleeve the ends of which form stops, a pivotal portion consisting of awire forced through the sleeve, and clamping-nuts adapted to be screwed upon the sleeve to secure the valve, substantially as shown and set forth.
13. The combination, with a meter, of a. registering mechanism having a packed shaft extending through the outer casing, and connections, substantially as described, between the shaft and measuring appliances, whereby said shaft is normally stationary, and is moved but once to a number of movements of the measuring appliances, substantially as described.
14. In a fluid-meter, the combination. with the displacing means, as the piston and diaphragm, of a system of direct-acting gearwheels, the construction and arrangement being such that a multiple of displacements is registered as one unit upon the register by a single movement of the register-shaft, which is normally stationary, substantially as specified.
15. In a fluid-meter, a pliant frustum-ofcone-shaped diaphragm connecting the piston and cylinders, to the smaller end of which is attached the piston, and to the larger end of which are attached the separate clampingrings of non-corrosive metal, substantially as shown and described.
16. The combination, with the upper cylinder of a fluid-meter, having a grooved bearing or recess, of the diaphragm and two separate non-corrosive rings, between which the diaphragm is clamped, and the whole, as one, contained within the grooved bearing or recess in the upper cylinder, substantially as set forth.
17. The combination, with the smaller rim of the diaphragm, of the piston and an annulus riveted or screwed thereto, said piston and annulus having grooves which act to cen- IOO ter the one upon the other, substantially as CHARLES C. BARTON. JOHN THOMSON.
LYMAN H. EssEX, WM. TrroMsoN.