lln rrnn S'rarns Parent @lrrrcne EDMOND LOUIS JOSEPH BONIFAOE, on GHANGY-LES-BOIS, PAR yAnnNNEs,
' LQIRET, FRANCE.
METHOD OF TRANSFORMING JERUSALEM-ARTICHOKE JUICE INTO LEVULOSE, dc.
" ECIFICAT OII forming part of Letters Patent No. 307,624, dated November 1884.
Application filed August 26, 1884. (No specimens To all whom it may colwern:
Be it known that I, EDMOND LOUIS Josnrni BONIFAOE, of Ghangy-les-Bois, par Varennes, Loiret, France, have invented an Improved Method of Transforming Jerusalem-Artiehoke Juice into Levulose and Applying the said Product, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
The root known as Jerusalem artichoke Uilclitmthas tabcrsus) contains a peculiar j uiee chcmicallykuown as synanthrose, and also amylaceous substances (inuline) which cannot be submitted to fermentation before their be ing transformedinto levulose. Under several influences these substances may be transformed directly into alcohol; but this transformation is always only partially effected, as
. essential oils are produced at the same time,
whose production is to be avoided. By the application of my method the synanthrose and inuline are thoroughly and rapidly transformed in levulose, which gives, after a complete and rapid fermentation, alcohol of a good quality. By the present method I can obtain a maximum percentage of alcohol almost deprived of essential oils. According to my method the synanthrose and inuline (what ever may be the process employed for extract ing them) are mixed with a mineral or an organic acid and submitted to the action of heat. The temperature to the action of which the juice or pulp must be submitted is about 100 centigrade, and I may employ to this end any kind of heating apparatus or agent. The proportion of acid employed varies according to the nature of the Jerusalem artichoke from which the juice or pulp has been obtained, and to the season of the year and the duration of the operation. Nevertheless, this proportion of acid is about from .0005 to .005 of the weight of the juice or pulp under treatment. At all events, I always employ such a proportion of acid that the treated juice needs not to be neutralizedby chalk or other alkali before its fermentation, The transformation of the above-mentioned substances into levulosemay be effected either at the open air or under pressure. In the latter case the operation is more rapid, and a smaller proportion of acid is to be employed. lVhen the operation has taken place, the juice is transformed merelyiu a solution of levulose, which may be successfullysubmitted to fermentation. According to my invention this solution is either distilled, so as to furnish alcohol, or is employed in the manufacture of a beverage analogous to beer.
In order to manufacture lcvulose sirup, I proceed as followsi Thejuice containing synanthrose and inuline is transformed into levu- 6o of the pure levulose obtained by my method alcohol deprived of essential oils, while by simply concentrating and purifying the solution of levnlose I obtain levulose sirup,which is of a much higher quality than glucose sirup.
This levulose may also be employed in the manufacture of a special kind of beer having all the qualities and savor of ordinary beer. This levulose beer may be obtained at a very low price, and is quite hygienic. For this manufacture I proceed as follows: The Jeri 8o salem-artichoke juice, obtained as pure as possible, is transformed into levulose by the action of an acid at a temperature of about 100 centigrade. In this case an organic acid is employed. The use of a mineral acid is not objectionable when levnlose is to be transformed into alcohol; but in the present case such an acid could be dangerous, as it remains mixed with the beer. I then use in the case-of the manufacture of levulose beer 0 only organic acids-such as tartaric, oxalic, malic, acetic, or other acids-i. 0., the acids which are generally found in pure wines and in fruits, and which are not dangerous and probably useful at a hygienic or digestive 5 point of view. I may also employ carbonic acid under pressure. When so transformed into levulose, the juice is submitted to the ordinary operations of beer manufacture, fermentation, &c., and in the present case, as for 103 Its savor is 65 ordinary beer, a very good beer-yeast is also obtained.
I claim ,1. The above-described method of transforming the synanthrose and inuline contained in the juice of Jerusalem artichoke into levulose by the application of an acid at a temperature of about 100 centigrade, and either in open air or under pressure, substantially as set forth.
2. The application and use of levulose in the manufacture of good alcohol by distillation, as above specified.
3. The application and use of levulose in the manufacture of levulose sirup, substantially as above set forth.
4. The application and use of levulose iu the manufacture of a special beer, Whatever may be the method of treatment employed, substantially as above set forth.
5. As new products of manufacture ]evulose beer and hygienic beverage, which has heretofore never been obtained.
The foregoing specification of my improved method of transforming Jerusalem-artichoke juice into levulose and applying the said pro (in ct signed by me this 18th day of July, 1884..
EDMOND LOUIS JOSEPH BONIFAOE.
R0131. M. l-Ioornn, ALBERT MOREAU.